Bourbon Restoration (1874-1902)
Who started it? General Martínez Campos
What? He proclaimed Isabella II and his son Alfonso as king of Spain.
Why? Political Inestability
Isabella II´s courage to allow his son to become a king.
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
Definition: a political system created by Cánovas del Castillo that allowed political parties to alternate in power and promised political and social stability. “Turnismo” Common objective To bring the social peace in Spain.
- Constitution 1876:
Shared power between the Cortes and the Monarchy.
eStablished Bicameral (Senate and Parliament)
Give power to the King to name the government.
Declared Spain as confessional state (Catholicism as main religion)
In order to avoid the pronunciamientos the army was made subordinate to the civil power.
- BILL OF RIGHTS
PROBLEMS DURING THE BOURBON RESTORATION
Caciquismo and electoral fraud: a form of social coercion in rural áreas in which individuals controles an electoral constituency through their economic power.
Nationalism: under a new centralised state, nationalists movements began to emerge in several Spanish regions,
- Catalonia (they began to demand autonomy)
- Basque Country (the abolition of the fueros and its consecuentes)
- Galicia (Resurgimiento movement)
The crisis of 1898